Protohippus
Protohippus sp., upper teeth, crown view
nature_website_11232005.jpg
Leg Bones [9]
A - right manus; B - left pes
Skull [8]
Upper Teeth [11]
Protohippus sp.
Left to right - M3, M2, M1, P4, P3, P2
Grinding surface
Skeleton (fossil) [7]
Protohippus simus
Upper Teeth[10]
Protohippus or Pliohippus?
Fd. Mohave Desert, California, USA
21423
21423
21424
A
B
Photo by R. Weller/ Cochise College
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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protohippus
[2] Scott, William, A History of Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere, (New York: The MacMillian Co., 1913), 305
[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protohippus
[4] Bennet, Deb, The Evolution of the Horse: History and Techniques of Study, 2008, 42
[5] Osborn, Henry, The Age of Mammals in Europe, Asia and North America, (New York: The MacMillian Co., 1921), 297
[6] Ibid.
[7] Photo taken at the New York Museum of Natural History
[8] Scott, William, A History of Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere, (New York: The MacMillian Co., 1913), 305
[9] Ibid. 306
[10] Merriam, John, Tertiary Mammalian Faunas of the Mohave Desert, (University of California Publications, 1919), 506
[11] Cope, Edward and Matthew, William, Hitherto Unpublished Plates of Tertiary Mammalia and Permian Vertebrata, (United States Government for the American Museum of Natural History), Plate CXLVIIIa
[12] Ibid.  
  
 
Lower Teeth[12]
Protohippus labrosus (Cope)
Fd. Pawnee Buttes, Colorado, USA
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Perissodactyla/Equidae/Equinae

 

Size

Roughly the size of a modern donkey [1]

Eye sockets

Complete bony rim [2], about 0.66 of skull length from front of skull to center of socket

Type of teeth

High crowned

Toes

Three toes per leg [3]

Hooves/pads

Each toe tipped with hooflet [4]

Locations found

North America [5]

Other

Found side by side with Merychippus, Parahippus, Hypohippus and Hipparion [6]

Horse Evolution?
Anchippus
Anchitherium
Equus 1 (Recent)
Equus 2 (Recent)
Equus 1 (Fossils)
Equus 2 (Fossils)
Hipparion
Hippidion
Hypohippus
Kalobatippus
Merychippus
Mesohippus
Miohippus
Nannippus
Neohipparion
Orohippus
Parahippus
Pliohippus
Protohippus
Protorohippus
Unidentified
Hyracotherum (Eohippus)