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Equus
Perissodactyla/Equidae/Equini/Equus
All horse teeth are covered with enamel before wear. Equus have high crowned teeth that wear away from eating hard gritty materials exposing the underlying plications (hard enamel ridges) that are filled and surrounded with cementum. These plications help grind up food and strengthen the teeth. Unlike animals such as Parahippus and Mesohippus with low crowned teeth filled with dentine, Equus teeth with their plications and cementum will continue to grow for their lifetime. The shape of the plications will vary depending on the breed, their dental position, and to their stage of wear.

Many of the teeth shown below have lost most of the surrounding cementum from erosion due to their environment after death of the horse. Teeth measurements of the specimens below are nonstandard and are simply max. depth x max. grinding surface length x max. grinding surface width.
Unassociated Lower Teeth Undetermined p3 to m2 (fossils)
Grinding surfaces
A - 2041 Fd. Hope Co., Florida, USA,,2.8"x1"x 0.7"; B - 1072a Fd. Ipwichian gravels of Peterborough, England, 2.9"x1.1"x0.55"; C -1072b Fd. Ipwichian gravels of Peterborough, England, 2.75"x1.1"x0.6"; D - 2056 Fd. Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA, 3.2"x1.1"x0.65"; E - 2063 Fd. Florida, USA, 2.70"x1.25"x0.60"; F - 2055 Fd. Tunica Hills, Louisiana, USA, 3.05"x1.0"x0.6"; G - 2045 Fd. Florida, USA,1.45"x1.05"x0.8"; H -2044 Fd. Florida, USA, 1.7"x0.95"x0.5"; I - 2081 Fd.Gulf of Mexico, 2.2"x0.9"x0.45"
I
Upper P2? Tooth
Equus sp.?
Grinding surface
2058 Fd. private property, Alachue Co., Florida, USA
0.6"x1.55"x0.75"
_______________________

[1] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution III, DVD, (Reel Productions, LLC, 2004)
[2] Abstract by Oxford Academic of Stecher, Robert, Anatomical Variations of the Spine in the Horse, Journal of Mammalogy, Vol.43, 29 May 1962, Pgs. 205-219 https://doi.org/10.2307/1377092 org/10 Note: each thoracic vertebra has a rib pair therefore 19 thoracic vertebrae are equal to 19 rib pairs, etc.
[3] Photo (http://www.nps.gov/hafo) [public domain]
[4] Scott, William, A History Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere, (New York, The Macmillan Co., 1913), 292 [5] Osborn, Henry, The Age of Mammals in Europe, Asia and North America, (New York: The MacMillian Co., 1921), 458 [6] Chafee Zoo, Fresno, California, USA
[5] Osborn, Henry, The Age of Mammals in Europe, Asia and North America, (New York: The MacMillian Co., 1921), 458
[6} Chaffee Zoo, Fresno, California, USA
[7] Scott, William, A History Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere, (New York, The Macmillan Co., 1913), 305 [8] Owen, Richard, A History of British Fossil Mammals and Birds, (London: John Van Voorst, 1846), 383
[8] Owen, Richard, A History of British Fossil Mammals and Birds, (London: John Van Voorst, 1846), 383
[9] Ibid., 393
[10] Fraas, Dr. E., Der Petrefaktensammler, (Stuttgart, Germany, K.G. Lutz' Verlag,1910), 69
[11] Owen, 392
[12] Ibid., 387
[13] Hay, Oliver, Contributions to the Knowledge of the Mammals of the Pleistocene of North America (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1915), Plate 32 and 34 at back
[14] Hay, Oliver, Notes on Some Fossil Horses, with Descriptions of Four New Species, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1913), 579
A
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Lower Tooth (fossil)
Lingual view
2063 Fd. Florida, USA
2.7"x1.25"x0.60"
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Size

Varies considerably

Eye sockets

Complete bony rim, about 0.67 of skull length from front of skull to center of socket

Type of teeth

High crowned

Toes

One toe per leg

Hooves/pads

Hooves with frogs

Location(s) found

North and South America, Asia, Europe, Asia Minor, Middle East

Other

The modern Equus heart is too small to pump all the blood needed when the horse is moving. Adequate blood flow is mantained by the hooves with each hoof acting as a pump. [1]

Rib pairs vary with 18 the nornal but may be 17 or 19 [2]

 

Upper M3 Tooth (fossil)
Lingual view
2049 Fd. Suwanee River,
Florida, USA
2.2"x1.2"x0.9"
Upper Tooth (fossil)
Lingual view
2064 Fd. Florida, USA
2.6"x0.9"x0.85"
Lower p2 Tooth (fossil)
Lingual view
2062 Fd. Florida, USA
2.45"x1.0"x0.50"
nature_website_11100039.jpg
Restoration by Charles R. Knight
Equus scotti [5]
Plains zebra
Equus quagga [6]
Eastern Africa
Equus caballus
Skull [7]
Asiatic Wild Horse
Equus prsewalskii [4]
A - 2064 Fd. Florida, USA, 2.6"x0.9"x0.85"; B - 2045 Fd. coastal river near Beaufort, South Carolina, USA, 2.7"x1.0"x1.0"; C - 1381 Fd. on site with Clovis points and paleo artifacts in Southeastern (Georgia?), USA,1.75"x0.95"x0.95"; D - 2043 Fd. Florida, USA,1.4"x0.85"x0.9"; E - 1846 Fd. China,1.2"x0.9"x1.0"; F - Hagarman Horse, Equus simplicedens?, 2069 Fd. Waco area, Texas, USA, 3.0"x1.1"x1.1"; G - 2047 Fd. surface on farm, Bartholomew Co., Indiana, USA, 2.8"x 1.2"x1.0" (fossil?) ; H - 2049 Fd. location unknown,1.4"x1.05"x1.1"
J
I - Equus fossilis, Kent's Hole, England; J - Recent
K
Upper Tooth [10]
Equus caballus
Color Added
Fd.Germany
nature_website_11100030.jpg
Upper P2 Teeth (fossils)
A - 2048 Fd. Peace River, Florida, USA, 1.5"x1.3"x0.90"; B - 2075 Fd. dredge deposit, Texas City Dike, Texas, USA, 2.25"x1.45"x0.95"; C - 2061 Fd. Florida, USA, 2.0"x1.45"x0.9"; D - 2068 Fd. coastal rivers in and around Beaufort, South Carolina, USA, 3.2"x1.45"x1.05";
E - 2083 Fd. river deposit, Tampa Bay area, Florida, USA, 2.0"x1.45"x0.9"; F - 2088 Fd. Flint River, Georgia, USA, 2.3"x1.4"x1.0"
I
Upper P4 Teeth [8]
Grinding surfaces
Upper P3 Tooth [9]
Grinding surface
Equus plicidens
Fd. Oreston, England
J
K
Skull and Jaw (fossil) [13]
Equus Hatcheri
A - Skull and jaw, side view, B - Upper teeth, grinding surface, C - Lower teeth, grinding surface
Upper and Lower Jaws and Teeth Drawings [14]
Equus niobraenses
A - Upper left jaw, inferior view; B - Lower left jaw, superior view; C - Lower teeth, grinding surface
nature_website_11100013.jpg
Lower m3 Tooth (fossil)
Grinding surface
Fd. river exposit Tampa area, Florida, USA
Lower p2 Teeth (fossils)
Grinding surfaces
A - 2057 Fd. coastal river near Beaufort,
South Carolina, USA, 2.3"x1.3"x0.55";
C - 2084 Fd. central Florida, USA, 1.6"x1.1"x0.65"
B - 2062 Fd. Florida, USA, 2.45"x1.0"x0.50";
Lower p4 Teeth [12]
J - Equus fossilis, grinding surface, Fd. Oreston, England, (woodcut);
K - recent, grinding surface, (woodcut)
nature_website_11100008.jpg
Unassociated Lower Teeth Undetermined p3 to m2 (fossils)
Grinding surfaces
A - 2041 Fd. Hope Co., Florida, USA,,2.8"x1"x 0.7"; B - 1072a Fd. Ipwichian gravels of Peterborough, England, 2.9"x1.1"x0.55"; C -1072b Fd. Ipwichian gravels of Peterborough, England, 2.75"x1.1"x0.6"; D - 2056 Fd. Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA, 3.2"x1.1"x0.65"; E - 2063 Fd. Florida, USA, 2.70"x1.25"x0.60"; F - 2055 Fd. Tunica Hills, Louisiana, USA, 3.05"x1.0"x0.6"; G - 2045 Fd. Florida, USA,1.45"x1.05"x0.8"; H -2044 Fd. Florida, USA, 1.7"x0.95"x0.5"; I - 2081 Fd.Gulf of Mexico, 2.2"x0.9"x0.45"
Upper M3 Teeth (fossils)
Grinding surfaces
A - 2049 Fd. Suwanee River, Florida, USA, 2.2"x1.2"x0.9";
B - 2090 M3? Fd. Florida, USA, 2.1"x1.0"x0.85"
Upper P2 Teeth [11]
G - Equus plicidens, grinding surface, Oreston, England (woodcut of fossil);
H - Equus caballus, grinding surface (woodcut)
Upper P2? Tooth
Equus sp.?
Grinding surface
2058 Fd. private property, Alachue Co., Florida, USA
0.6"x1.55"x0.75"
A
B
C
D
E
F
Hagarman Horse
Equus simplicidens
By NPS [3], via Wikimedia Commons
All horse teeth are covered with enamel before wear. Equus have high crowned teeth that wear away from eating hard gritty materials exposing the underlying plications (hard enamel ridges) that are filled and surrounded with cementum. These plications help grind up food and strengthen the teeth. Unlike animals such as Parahippus and Mesohippus with low crowned teeth filled with dentine, Equus teeth with their plications and cementum will continue to grow for their lifetime. The shape of the plications will vary depending on the breed, their dental position, and to their stage of wear.

Many of the teeth shown below have lost most of the surrounding cementum from erosion due to their environment after death of the horse. Teeth measurements of the specimens below are nonstandard and are simply max. depth x max. grinding surface length x max. grinding surface width.
I - Equus fossilis, Kent's Hole, England; J - Recent
Lower p2 Tooth (fossil)
Lingual view
2062 Fd. Florida, USA
2.45"x1.0"x0.50"
Upper M3 Tooth (fossil)
Lingual view
2049 Fd. Suwanee River,
Florida, USA
2.2"x1.2"x0.9"
Lower Tooth (fossil)
Lingual view
2063 Fd. Florida, USA
2.7"x1.25"x0.60"
Upper Tooth (fossil)
Lingual view
2064 Fd. Florida, USA
2.6"x0.9"x0.85"
Horse Evolution?
Anchippus
Anchitherium
Equus 1 (Recent)
Equus 2 (Recent)
Equus 1 (Fossils)
Equus 2 (Fossils)
Hipparion
Hippidion
Hypohippus
Kalobatippus
Merychippus
Mesohippus
Miohippus
Nannippus
Neohipparion
Orohippus
Parahippus
Pliohippus
Protohippus
Protorohippus
Unidentified
Hyracotherum (Eohippus)