Pliohippus specians
A - Incisor, grinding view
B - M1 or M2, anterior and grinding view
Fd. Cottonwood Creek, John Day Basin, Oregon, USA
Upper Milk Molars [14]
Pliohipppus fairbanksi? (Merriam)
B - Dm4
Fd. Mohave Desert, California, USA
Upper Teeth [12]
Pliohipppus fairbanksi (Merriam)
Left to right P4, P4?, M1
Fd. Mohave Desert, California, USA
Skeleton Reconstruction
Natural History Museum, Karlsruhe, Germany
Photo by Ghedoghedo [10]
Perissodactyla/Equidae/Equinae
Pliohippus
Upper Teeth[11]
A - Incisor, grinding view
B - M1 or M2, anterior and grinding view
C - P2, grinding view
B - Dm4
A
B
Pliohipppus fairbanksi (Merriam)
Left to right P4, P4?, M1
Photo by Ghedoghedo [10]
A
B
C
A
B
C
Lower dm4 Milk Molar [19]
Pliohipppus fairbanksi? (Merriam)
Fd. Mohave Desert, California, USA
Upper Teeth [16]
Pliohipppus tantalus? (Merriam)
P2 to M3
Fd. Mohave Desert, California, USA
A - Pliohippus fairbanksi (Merriam) P4
B - Pliohipppus tantalus (Merriam) P4?
C - Pliohippus sp a, near mirabilis (Leidy) M1
Fd. Mohave Desert, California, USA
Lower Teeth [17]
Left to right p2 to p4
Fd. Mohave Desert, California, USA
Incisor Teeth [15]
Fd. Mohave Desert, California, USA
Lower Teeth [18]
Pliohipppus tantalus? (Merriam)
A - p2 to p4
B - m1 and m2
C - p4
Fd. Mohave Desert, California, USA
A
B
C
nature_website_11231003.jpg
Lower dm4 Milk Molar [19]
Pliohipppus fairbanksi? (Merriam)
Upper Teeth [16]
Pliohipppus tantalus? (Merriam)
P2 to M3
Upper Teeth [13]
Lower Teeth [17]
Pliohipppus fairbanksi? (Merriam)
Left to right p2 to p4
Incisor Teeth [15]
Pliohippus?, sp. (Merriam)
Lower Teeth [18]
Pliohipppus tantalus? (Merriam)
A - p2 to p4
B - m1 and m2
C - p4
A
B
C
Leg Bones [20]
Hipparion or Pliohippus, sp.
A1 to A4 - third metacarpal
A1 - proximal end, anterior view
A2 - articular facets of proximal end
A3 - distal half, anterior view
A4 distal half, posterior view
B - fourth metatarsal, lateral view
C - second metatarsal, lateral view
D - Pliohippus?, sp. distal end metapodial
E - cuboid, inner view
F to H - astragali
Fd. Mohave Desert, California, USA
Leg Bones [21]
A to B - Pliohipppus?, sp.
C to G - Hipparion andPliohippus
A1 - third metacarpal and lateral metacarpal,
anterior view
A2 - third metacarpal and lateral metacarpal,
side view
B - third metacarpal with lateral metacarpals
C - first phalanx
D - first and second phalanges
E - second phalanx
F - first phalanx
G - first phalanx
Fd. Mohave Desert, California, USA
A1
A2
B
C
D
E
F
G
A1
A2
A3
A4
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
________________________

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pliohippus
[2] Ibid.
[3] Bennet, Deb, The Evolution of the Horse: History and Techniques of Study, 2008, 14 http://www.equinestudies.org/evolution_horse_2008/elsevier_horse_evolution_2008_pdf1.pdf
[4] Simpson, George, Horses, (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc.,1961), 257
[5] wikipedia,Ibid
[6] Merriam, John, Tertiary Mammalian Faunas of the Mohave Desert, (University of California Publications, 1919), 566
[7] wikipedia, Ibid.
[8] Ibid.
[9] Morris, J. 1994.What About the Horse Series? Acts & Facts. 23(3) http://www.icr.org/article/what-about-horse-series/
[10] Wikimedia Commons, [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommonshttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 )]
[11] Cope, Edward and Matthew, William, Hitherto Unpublished Plates of Tertiary Mammalia and Permian Vertebrata, (United States Government for the American Museum of Natural History), Plate CXLVIIIa
[12] Merriam, John, Tertiary Mammalian Faunas of the Mohave Desert, (University of California Publications, 1919), 566
[13] Ibid., 566
[14] Ibid., 568
[15] Ibid., 555
[16] Ibid., 562
[17] Ibid., 565
[18] Ibid., 563
[19] Ibid., 568
[20] Ibid., 572-573
[21] Ibid., 569
Home   Site Index
Origins Facts Check
Myths of Evolution
NAPP Summary
 
 
Copyright 2018 All rights reserved.
Home   Site Index   Disclaimer
 

 

Size

About 4.1 feet tall, similar to modern horse [1]

Eye sockets

Complete bony rim, about 0.70 of skull length from front of skull to center of socket

Type of teeth

High-crowned, strongly curved [2], enamel over enamel ridged lakes filled with cementum and teeth surrounded by cementum [3]

Toes

One toe per leg [4]

Hooves/pads

Hooves on central toes [5]

Locations found

California [6], Colorado, Nebraska, and Dakotas, USA and Canada [7]

Other

Deep facial fossae on skull; found beside Neohipparion [8]

NIneteen pairs of ribs [9] (verified below)

Horse Evolution?
Anchippus
Anchitherium
Equus 1 (Recent)
Equus 2 (Recent)
Equus 1 (Fossils)
Equus 2 (Fossils)
Hipparion
Hippidion
Hypohippus
Kalobatippus
Merychippus
Mesohippus
Miohippus
Nannippus
Neohipparion
Orohippus
Parahippus
Pliohippus
Protohippus
Protorohippus
Unidentified
Hyracotherum (Eohippus)