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Hipparion
Lower Tooth (fossil)
Hipparion sinensis
1821 Fd. Gausu, China
Restoration by Heinrich Harder
Upper Teeth Drawing [8]
Hipparion, sp.
Left M2, right P2
Fd. Mojave Desert
Upper and Lower Teeth Drawing[5] Hipparion mohavense callodonte
A - Upper teeth, left to right P2-P4, M1-M3B - Lower teeth, left to right p2-p4, m1-m3 C - Upper M3 Tooth, Fd. Mojave Desert, California, USA
A
B
C
Incisor Teeth Drawing[6]
Hipparion mohavense callodonte
Fd. Mojave Desert, California, USA
Lower Teeth Drawing[12] Hipparion mohavense callodonte
A - Left to right p4 to m2
B - p2, C - p4, D - p3, E - m2 Fd. Mojave Desert, California, USA
A
B
C
D
E
sp. B
sp. A
Perissodactyla/Equidae/Equinae
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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hipparion
[2] Ibid.
[3] Ibid.
[4] Ibid.
[5] Ibid.
[6] Lydekker, R., A Geological History of Mammals, (Cambridge: At the University Press.,1896), 168
[7] Fraas, Dr. E., Der Petrefaktensammler, (Stuttgart, Germany, K.G. Lutz' Verlag,1910), 69
[8] Merriam, John, Tertiary Mammalian Faunas of the Mohave Desert, (University of California Publications, 1919), 555
[9] Lydekker, Richard, Catalogue of the Fossil Mammalia in the British Museum, Part 3, (London: Taylor and Francis, 1886), 50
[10] Merriam, John, Tertiary Mammalian Faunas of the Mohave Desert, (University of California Publications, 1919), 552
[11] Ibid. 553
[12] Merriam, Ibid.  551
[13] Public domain or CC BY-SA 2.5 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)
 
 
   
Copyright 2018 All rights reserved.
Photo by Ghedo [13],
via Wikimedia Commons
Skull and Jaw
Hipparion gracile
Leg [14]
Hipparion
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Size

About 4.6 ft tall at shoulder [1]

Eye sockets

Complete bony rim, about 0.68 of skull length from front of skull to center of socket

Type of teeth

High crowned

Toes

Three toes per leg; large middle toe and two smaller toes that did not reach the ground [2]

Hooves/pads

Hoove on middle toe [4]

Locations found

North America, Asia, Europe, and Africa [5]

Other

Fossa (depression) in front of orbit in Hipparion gracile

Dental formula 3.1.4.3/3.1.4.3

Horse Evolution?
Anchippus
Anchitherium
Equus 1 (Recent)
Equus 2 (Recent)
Equus 1 (Fossils)
Equus 2 (Fossils)
Hipparion
Hippidion
Hypohippus
Kalobatippus
Merychippus
Mesohippus
Miohippus
Nannippus
Neohipparion
Orohippus
Parahippus
Pliohippus
Protohippus
Protorohippus
Unidentified
Hyracotherum (Eohippus)