Dedicated to summarizing the facts regarding origins
& Nature Photo Galleries
Click on Photo to go to Gallery.













Vestigial organs: “(A)pparently useless structures” said to “provide evidence for evolution.” [1]  An evolutionary revisionist definition: “Any part of an organism that has diminished in size during its evolution  because the function it served decreased in importance or became totally unnecessary.” [2]


“It is scientifically unsound to make any assumptions of the way things ought to be.” [3]


 Claims of reduced size and function are supported only by evolutionary assumptions.


Almost all the so-called vestigial organs have been proven to have definite purposes.  Of the 180 vestigial organs previously claimed by evolutionists in humans, [4] the definite uses of only a few are not known. 


Evolutionists have claimed that the following are useless vestiges in humans but definite functions are now known:

1.  Appendix- part of lymphatic system, [5]  and storehouse of useful bacteria that help digest food [6]

2.  Liver - has over 500 functions including producing quick energy, removing wastes from blood and fighting infections.[7]

3.  Spleen - part of lymphatic system. [8] 

Spleen-less men are twice as likely to die from heart disease and pneumonia[9]

4. Tonsils - part of lymphatic system - significant function in protecting the throat from infections. [10]

5.  Peyer’s patch - part of lymphatic

 system [11]

6.  Thymus -triggers the immune system by activating T cells [12]

7.  Coccyx (tail bone) - supports the bones around the pelvis and convergence point for small muscles.    It is not possible to sit comfortably without it. [13]

8.  Semi-lunar fold - in charge of cleaning and lubricating the eyeball. [14]







Junk DNA:  This claim in support of evolution was based on the fact that proteins are coded by 1.5% of the humane genome with the rest of the genome assumed useless.


The ENCODE project provides “convincing evidence that the (human) genome is pervasively transcribed, such that the majority of its bases can be found in primary transcripts, including, non-protein coding transcripts.”  With all that DNA being transcribed, it must be used for something therefore it is not junk.   Also, the biochemical functions of 80% of the genome outside the protein-coding regions have been assigned. [15]                                                                         





Human and chimp DNA are 98.5% identical.   This is a common argument as evidence of common ancestry. 


1. “(H)umans don’t look or act  98.5 percent identical to chimps.”  The 98.5% figure pertains only to the portion of the DNA that codes for proteins.  The DNA outside the protein-coding region accounting for about 98 % of the genome is different between humans and chimps. [16]   

2.  Eighty percent of the non protein-coding DNA in humans has been shown to have biological regulatory functions with functions of the remainder to be determined. [17] 

3.  Considering the different DNA outside the protein-coding region makes common ancestry impossible within the time available based on evolutionary assumptions. [18]





Humans and apes have a common ancestor.


1.  The human Y chromosome containing about 60 million nucleotide subunits determines male sexual characteristics and differs radically in sequence and gene content from chimps. [19]

2.   DNA methylation patterns between humans and chimps are very different.  Methylation provides “critical regulation of the activity of DNA-manipulating enzymes both during embryonic development and during the daily life of adult cells.” [20]





Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis) is promoted by many evolutionists as the best example of a missing link from apes to humans. [21] 


In 1974 in the Afar Depression of Ethiopia, Johanson and Gray discovered the 40% complete skeleton of this animal.  Hands and feet were missing.


It stood approximately 3’-6” tall, weighed approximately 50 pounds, had gorilla like ”U” shaped jaw, teeth far larger than humans,  a brain one quarter the size of humans,  and hip and knee joints that may suggest upright walking but not in the human manner. Other Australopithecus fossils have long curved fingers and long curved toes suitable for swinging from branch to branch.   Some researchers have concluded that Lucy is a wrongly combined mosaic of two or three species. [22]


 Lucy is now considered by many researchers to be an extinct ape and not an ancestor of humans. [23]  [24]  






Fossils found below a strata are older than those found in that strata.


This idea results from two principles of stratification held since 1669: superposition and lateral continuity.  These principles had been accepted without experimental verification.  Recent experimental results indicate that multiple stratum will form at the same time when a certain amount of current is present. Also, as the stratum spread, part of the upper strata will be older than the lower strata. [25]





Extinctions are necessary for evolution and the fact that there has been extinctions prove evolution.


Extinction tells us nothing about how dinosaurs came into being. [26] There is no evidence that the random process of extinction could effectively remove all traces of ancestral and transitional forms and leave the existing species so isolated. [27]





Miller-Urey experiment proved that life could have originated by chance.


Just made some amino acids from methane gas which is a universe away from creating life. 

“(I)f large amounts of methane had been present in the primitive atmosphere, the earliest rocks would have a high proportion of organic molecules, and this is not the case.” [28]





Panspermia: the idea that life was originally seeded by extraterrestrials.


This idea comes from the realization that life evolving on earth is very improbable.   There is no shred of evidence for extraterrestrial life. [29]





[1] Davis and Solomon ,The World of Biology, 3rd ed. (Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing, 1986), 713

[2] Bergman, Jerry, Do Any Vestigial Organs Exist in Humans? Answers in Genesis http//

[3] Behe, Michael, Darwin’s Black Box (New York: The Free Press, 2003), 227

[4] Bergman

[5] The Myth of Vestigial Organs, Darwinism Refuted,

[6] Koerth-Baker, Vestigial Organs Not So Useless After All, Studies Find, National Geographic News, July 20, 2009,

[7] Summary of Liver Functions, British Liver Trust,


[8] The Myth of Vestigial Organs

[9] Koerth-Baker

[10]The Myth of Vestigial Organs

[11] Ibid.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Tomkins, Jeffrey,ENCODE Reveals Incredible Genome Complexity and Function, Institute of Creation

Research, 2012,

[16] Thomas, Brian, DNA Study Contradicts Human/Chimp Common Ancestry, Institute of Creation Research,


[18] Thomas

[19] Wells, Johathan, The Myth of Junk DNA (Seattle: Discovery Institute Press, 2011), 111

[20] Thomas, Brian, Stark Differences Between Human and Chimp Brains, Institute of Creation Research, 2012,

[21] Plaisted, David, Problems with Lucy and Skull 1470,   

[22] Morris, John D., Was Lucy An Ape-man? Institute of Creation Research,

[23] Plaisted

[24] Morris, John D.

[25] Experiments in Stratification -

[26] Scientific Creationism, Ed. by Henry M. Morris (Arizona: Master Books, 1985), 58

[27] Denton, 136

[28] Wells, Icons of Evolution, Chapter 2

[29] Denton, 260

Myths as used here are: 1. Tentative suppositions, or theories that have been factually disproved and are long after still being promoted as supporting certain beliefs. 2. False or misleading statements made in support of a theory. 3. Facts that are said to support a theory that in reality may equally or better support one or more known opposing theories. 4. Supposed facts in support of a theory that are fraudulent.
Ceraatosaursus nasicornis
Fd. Colorado, USA [a]
[a] Von Zittel, Karl, Text-book on Palaeontology (New York, The Macmillan Company, 1902), 234
[b] Ibid. 229
Copyright 2021 All rights reserved.
Home   Site Index
Origins Facts Check
Myths of Evolution
NAPP Summary
Beginning of Myths of Evolution
Home    Site Index   Disclaimer