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Bombardier Beetle (f)
Brachinus crepitans
Cell Membrane (a)
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Representation of the 3-D structure of the protein myoglobin (b)
Pacific Golden Plover (c)
Charadrius dominicus
in Hawaii
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Danaus plexippus
Flight Feathers
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Sterna paradisaea
 
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Colaptes cafer collaris
 
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0057 Fd. Hubei, China 
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Horse Hoof Frog 

Evolution: Falsified?

 

Number of examples refuting evolution continue to multiply

 

For an idea to be a valid scientific theory, it must have the capability of being proven false.  This concept is called falsifiability or refutability.  Charles Darwin in Chapter 9 of “The Origin of Species” proposed a test of his theory of evolution through natural selection when he stated:

“If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.”

Considering the state of knowledge of the biological cell when Darwin wrote this, falsifying his theory probably seemed to him as highly unlikely.  Darwin and the scientists of his day thought that the cell was only a membrane containing protoplasm. He had no idea as to the complexity of the cell and expressed confidence that the fossil record would provide innumerable transitional forms proving his theory. The fossil record has instead shown after 150 years of intense searching and finding millions of fossils, no undisputed transitional fossils (i.e. missing links). [1][2][3]

Species is an ambiguous term that means different things in biology versus paleontology. Species is not a biblical term as the Bible refers only to kinds.  Albeit within any species, there are differences some of which may favor the survival of those having a particular trait or traits under certain environmental pressure(s). Natural selection is the process whereby the favored within a species under certain environmental pressures tend to survive producing more offspring that survive with their traits in future generations and the least favored within a species tend to die out. Darwin thought that this process led to new species. Creationists point out that natural selection creates nothing new but merely selects among the traits that already exist. They also state that natural selection was designed into the various kinds to allow them to adapt to new and changing environments. So, the question is not whether natural selection works but whether it can produce a new organism (macroevolution) as evolutionists claim or is limited to minor changes in an existing organism (microevolution) as creationists claim.

 When Darwinists are faced with a challenge to the evolutionary theory, they are quick to try to discredit it or circumvent the problem with some non-falsifiable possible theoretical rescue. [a] Possible here means that there may be a chance that it happened this way, no matter how remote. My college physics professor once gave an example to illustrate possibility. He said that it is possible to drop a rock and it would not fall because it was being impacted on the bottom side by every molecule of air in the atmosphere. Even to a student there was something wrong with this illustration after all how could this happen?

Today, there are many examples that challenge macroevolution, the assumption that new kinds of organisms are formed by natural selection.  What follows are some biological examples in nature that challenge Darwin’s theory of evolution:

1.    “The Cambrian explosion was one of the most spectacular events in the history of life. In a short window of geological time an abundance of new animals – and new body designs – arose fully formed without evidence of any evolutionary ancestors.” [4] There are “no precursors to the Cambrian fauna in the Precambrian rock.” [5] Some have proposed that the missing evolutionary ancestors may have been soft bodied and for this reason left no fossils.  Yet soft bodied fossils are found elsewhere in the fossil record such as jellyfish and raindrops. [6] The available evidence strongly supports creation.

2.    All biological organs are made up of cells and all cells require membranes to exist. The cell membrane and the cell contents provide a catch - 22 scenario.  For the membrane is required to protect the cell’s contents that will quickly be destroyed without it and the membrane is formed by the cell’s extremely complex contents (DNA, RNA, proteins, biological machines, energy ATP).  One cannot exist without the other.  All had to be there at the same time in the beginning. The first organ could not have been “formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications.” [b]

3.   The three-way complex between protein, DNA, and RNA in a biological cell is another catch-22. “DNA encodes RNA transcripts, but both RNA transcript production and DNA replication are dependent on specific proteins. And proteins are themselves encoded in genes (DNA) and produced from RNA transcripts that are copied from genes in DNA.” [7] Unless all three in this complex were there from the beginning, this complex could not exist. Therefore, this complex must be irreducible and “could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications.”

4.    “Proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells.” [8] Proteins are peptide chains of amino acid residues mostly sequenced from 20 types of amino acids. The sequence for any functional protein must be exact so that it will fold properly as the fold determines how or if it will function. Stephen Meyers has calculated the odds of getting the right sequence of one median sized 150 amino residue protein by self-assembling are no better than 1 chance in 10164.[9] With the exception of viruses, the minimum number of proteins in any organism appears to be around 200. The chance of producing 200 functional proteins of 150 amino acids long by self-assembly is estimated as 1/10164 times itself 200 times which is 1 in 1032,800 (10 followed by 32,800 zeros); this is extremely close to impossible even with billions of years to accomplish it. The “numerous, successive, slight modifications” that Darwin envisioned for evolution also relies on undirected self-assembly (i.e. random chance), therefore, the odds of it producing 200 functional proteins of 150 amino acids long also is extremely close to impossible.

5.   Some types of bacteria use flagellum to swim. The flagellum is a biological machine like an outboard motor that propels the bacteria along. It consists of a motor, a propeller, and a universal joint. All three of these components are required to make this machine work and must be there from the beginning. “Numerous, successive, slight modifications” as required by evolution will not work. The concept of nonfunction of a machine or organ without all its parts is known as irreducible complexity. [10] [11]

Some opponents of irreducible complexity argue that the parts of the flagellum could have been borrowed (co-opted) from other functions.  They claim that the instant that “anybody finds a subset of parts that has a function,” the irreducible complexity “argument is destroyed.”[12]

Proponents counter that there are about 40 protein parts in a flagellum and simply finding one or 10 in some other function elsewhere does not negate the irreducible complexity of the organ. All the right components including those proteins that are unique to the flagellum are needed in the right number, and in the right order of assembly from the beginning for the flagellum to function. Any potentially new component that does not function from the offset will be eliminated by natural selection because they do not provide functional advantage. Creating a functional machine involves more than just having the right parts. The parts first must be manufactured by other machines that are manufactured by other machines. And they need to be transported to the right place by machines that are manufactured by other machines. The assembly must also proceed in a sequential manner. Not only is the flagellum irreducibly complex but the making of it is irreducibly complex. [13]

6.    The metamorphosis of butterflies is fascinating.  A butterfly starts as an egg then becomes a larva that spends much of its time eating and crawling to get more food.  Then it becomes a chrysalis and during this period is mostly dissolved and almost completely remade into a flying butterfly.  How could evolution that is a natural materialistic process without foresight accomplish this? [14][15][16]

7.    The Pacific Golden Plover birds that breed in Alaska migrate to the Hawaiian Islands. This migration involves 88 hours of nonstop flight navigating over water with no markers to follow arriving at the exact location year after year. Prior to this migration, the plovers must gain just the right amount of burnable weight. Evolution cannot explain how the plovers first started this migration as it could not have started in “numerous successive slight increments,” how they know how much to eat, nor can it explain how they navigate so precisely to the same location over such a large distance with no markers. [17]

8.    Mammal knee joint is a very sophisticated four bar system consisting of:

(a)  the posterior cruciate ligament

(b)  the anterior cruciate ligament

(c)  the bone of the femur

(d)  the bone of the tibia

The joint functions by two convex projections (condyles) in the femur sliding in two concave grooves in the tibia with the two cruciate (crossed) ligaments in between these bones guiding the knee joints movement. If either ligament is taken away, the joint ceases to function so the mammal knee joint is irreducibly complex. [18]

9.    All flight feathers are composed of a shaft, a short stiff leading vane, and a wider more flexible trailing vane.  Each vane is composed of numerous very fine parallel barbs running diagonally from the shaft (rachis). Branching off on opposite sides of each barb are numerous barbules with all the barbules on one side being plain and all the barbules on the opposite side having numerous microscopic hooklets. The barbules cross over barbules from the adjacent barbs and are firmly linked to each other by the hooklets so positioned that they will not unzip with wing down strokes to provide lift. [19] [20] On up strokes, the hooklets unlock allowing air to move through the wing.  This reduces the anti-lift force from raising the wings and reduces the size and weight of the required muscles to raise the wings.  

Flight feathers are irreducibly complex. Their whole design is integrally dependent on all its components being there from the beginning. For example, eliminate the hooklets and the feather is useless for flying.

One evolutionary source describes the evolution of feathers as follows:

“This complicated structure evolved in multiple stages over many millions of years.

STAGE ONE: thin, hollow filaments appeared over 150 million years ago.

STAGE TWO: tufts of filaments that somewhat resemble down feathers.

STAGE THREE: numerous filaments sticking out from a central shaft.

STAGE FOUR: shaft located off-center; these feathers provide the aerodynamic lift needed for flight.”  [21]

However, this evolutionary scheme involves the logical fallacy of circular reasoning. Unless the premise that feathers evolved is true, none of the four stages are valid (e.g. finding hollow filaments does not prove they evolved or that they evolved into something else).  

10. Arctic terns raise their young in the Arctic during the Arctic summer and fly to Antarctica to live during the Antarctic summer. They are well adapted for this migration: sleek bodies and wings, strong muscles, weighing only 5 ounces, innate navigation capabilities, etc. The minimum flight distance for their annual round trip is around 24,000 miles although their actual round trip is much further. A tracking device placed on one Artic tern recorded a round trip of over 50,000 miles.  The reasons for the longer trip are to conserve energy by utilizing the jet streams and other air currents and to take advantage of food sources such as small fish, shrimp, and crustaceans along the way. They make no rest stops on land during the migration.[22][23] [24]

Navigation is a key element to this migration but how Artic terns navigate is not well understood. It is likely they utilize a combination of some or all the following different types of navigational methods: landmark navigation when landmarks are available, sun compass during the day, solar compass at night, and magnetic compass day and night. Thousands of miles of the migration are over open ocean far from land eliminating landmark navigation for this portion of the trip.

Many kinds of birds use the sun as a compass. This is quite complicated as the sun moves 15 degrees every hour. [25] They use the angle between the sun’s horizontal vector and due north, this angle is known as an azimuth. Knowing the azimuth is not enough to determine position, but the bird must keep track of time to compensate for the change in azimuth with time. So, they need to keep track of time internally. [26]

Artic terns also fly at night. Apparently, they navigate at night using the north star, Polaris, in the northern hemisphere and the southern cross constellation rotating around the south pole in the south hemisphere. [27]

It is known that “birds possess a magnetic sense they use on the migration routes.” [39] A portion of this magnetic sense is possibly a magnetic compass that works off magnetite crystals in their beaks, and/or specialized proteins in their eyes. [29] [30]

All the above possible navigation methods are innate not learned behaviors. They involve complex algorithms that could not have evolved by the accumulation of small incremental changes over time.  

11.  Adult giraffes are the tallest of all animals with bull giraffes standing about 18 feet tall. [31] Their 8-foot-long neck allows them to eat leaves high up in acacia trees and to better see approaching danger. But giraffes also eat leaves from deciduous trees and shrubs lower to the ground. Giraffes are like camels that do not need to drink water for weeks. When they do drink, they spread their forelegs sideways and lower their heads to the water. This almost 16-foot variation between when the giraffe’s head is up or down creates a unique blood circulation problem in maintaining the proper blood pressure in their heads.

To pump any liquid upward against gravity creates a higher pressure at the lower end than higher up. Adult giraffes have a large 25-pound heart where the blood exits under high pressure (up to 300/180 mm) more than twice that of a normal human heart. A giraffe’s arteries have extra elasticity to withstand this high pressure and prevent their arteries from bursting. When the giraffe’s head is upright, the blood pressure in its head is 110/70 mm about the same as that for a large mammal, and all is well. [32] “When it lowers its head, all that high pressure blood would likely rush downhill (further assisted by gravity) and blow out the delicate blood vessels in the brain and eyes - if it weren’t for a series of clever mechanisms working in concert with one another.” [33]

As a giraffe lowers its head, blood is diverted in its upper neck from the artery supplying its head to a web of small vessels which expand to keep the blood pressure in its head nearly constant. If the giraffe senses danger and suddenly raises its head, this web also helps to keep the giraffe from fainting. Also, when its head is lowered, unique valves in its jugular vein keep blood from rushing back into its head causing severe damage. [34[35][36] [37]

Neo-darwinists claim that giraffes evolved through mutations and natural selection. One of the major problems with this claim is that the fossil record for giraffes shows only minor changes from the oldest giraffe fossils. [38] In other words, giraffes always had long necks. If the first giraffes did not have these unique circulatory features, they would have burst their brains the first time they lowered their heads and there would be no descendants. Small incremental changes over time here will not work.

12. “Clown fish are designed with an immunity to the anemone’s poison could not have been inherited since prior generations would have been killed and gone extinct before having evolved a beneficial immunity.” [39]

13. African bombardier beetles, Stenaptinus insignis, have been extensively studied by scientists for many years because of their highly effective chemical defense system. They are capable of explosively spraying a hot caustic fluid from the tip of their abdomen against potential predators, such as spiders, ants, frogs, and birds. [40] Temperature of this spray at 100 0C or more is a significant deterrent by itself. [41][42] These beetles can accurately target predators in virtually any direction, even over their heads. [43][44] Spray range is a remarkable 20 to 30 cm for the small size of their combustion chambers. [45] “A single bombardier beetle can discharge upward of 20 times before depleting its glands.”[46] Each discharge is accompanied by an audible pop.

This system has all the hallmarks of being designed. Like any design, it starts with a purpose. The purpose of this design is to protect the beetle. Then, there Is the plan to accomplish this. Individual components need to be envisioned and design problems worked out. Assembly instructions need to be put in place so that all parts are right fitting and working together properly. The right materials need to be available where and when needed. Assemblers need to be present to follow the assembly instructions.

Now let’s look at the defense system’s parts and purposes.

a.    Sensory (eyes, antennas, and nerves) - to sense and transmit information to brain.

b.    Brain - to process information using complex algorithms to determine danger and direct response.

c.    Nerves - to send signals from brain to start defense if in danger and to direct spray.

The portion of the defense system outlined below has two separate tracks with identical components. [47] The descriptions below apply to the components in each tract in order from making the reactants to exhausting their products of combustion. 

d.   Secretory lobes - to synthesize the two reactants, hydroquinone, and hydrogen peroxide in aquas solution for chemical defense. [48]

e.   Collection tubes from the secretory lobes - to collect the synthesized aquas reactants and deliver them to the main tube. [49]

f.    Main tube – to transport the reactants to the reservoir. [50]

g.    Reservoir – to store the reactants for use as needed.[51]

h.    Striated muscle surrounding the reservoir - to apply pressure to force the reactants from the reservoir when it receives a signal from brain. [52]

i.      Thin tube from the reservoir - to transport the reactants to the combustion chamber. [53][54]

j.      Valve in latter tube – to control flow from the reservoir to the combustion chamber. [55][56] This valve initially opens under pressure from the squeezed fluid in the reservoir. Then it closes from the pressure generated from the exothermal reaction in the combustion chamber that causes the portion of the chamber surrounding the tube to expand pinching off the tube. When the fluid in the chamber is expelled, this valve then reopens under pressure from the reservoir fluid. This allows more reactants from the reservoir to enter the chamber starting the cycle over again. [57][58] And, this cycling proceeds very rapidly until the muscle surrounding the reservoir is relaxed or the reservoir is empty.

k.    Lobes - to manufacture two catalysts, catalase, and peroxidase, needed for the chemical reaction in the combustion chamber to proceed. Some researchers place these lobes on the combustion chamber walls and other researchers did not find them there. [59]

l.     Combustion chamber – to provide a suitable place for the exothermic reaction involving the reactants and catalysts. This reaction rapidly proceeds producing a boiling solution of benzoquinone and water accompanied with high pressure to explosively exhaust the hot solution. [60] The combustion chamber is possibly lined with special material to resist the heat generated. [61]

m.  Exhaust tube – to exhaust the fluid from the combustion chamber to the exhaust turret and deflector plate(s). [62][63]

n.   Exhaust valve – to allow the pressure to build up in the combustion chamber to greatly increase the exhaust pressure and velocity. This valve is forced open when sufficient pressure is built up in the combustion chamber and closes when the chamber’s contents are expelled. [64]

o.    Exhaust turret – to direct the exhaust fluid with pinpoint accurately at the predator based on impulses from the brain. The beetle can move the turret in almost any direction even twisting to direct the spray over its back towards its front. [65][66][67]

p.    Deflector (reflector) plate(s) – to work together with the exhaust turret to “give directional control to the discharge by changing their angle of deflection.” [68] “Deployment of the reflectors would appear to require special action on the part of the beetle.” [69]

The bombardier beetle’s system of defense utilizes a “sophisticated and specialized biological design” that “works to simultaneously achieve defensive and protective functions.” [70] How its internal organs are protected is not fully understood.

“Evolutionists state that the bombardier beetles chambers evolved from minor structures through mutations and survival of the fittest to become the insect’s primary defense mechanism.” [71]

14.  Juvenile wingless mantises are quite agile jumpers making amazingly calculated jumps and landings at varying distances. They prepare to jump by moving their head side to side to determine the distance to the target and adjust their center of mass by curling their abdomen and adjusting their legs. Then they leap rotating in air in a controlled fashion using their “abdomen, front legs, and hind legs – independently and in a complex sequence. As the mantises sail through the air, the spin is transferred from one body segment to the next, keeping the body as a whole level and right on target.” [72] Rotation is stopped in the last 10 milliseconds to face the target before landing. [73] To stop rotation in this manner is quite a difficult feat and the landings are precise.

How did the mantis become programmed to calculate precise distances and make amazingly precise landings? This requires the creation of a lot of complex information and processing that only rationally is created by intelligence not random mutations and natural selection that result in the loss of information.

The following is a list with brief descriptions of some of the other numerous examples brought forth refuting evolution. Why these examples defy evolution and other critical details are given in the stated references which interested readers are encouraged to examine.

1.   The biochemistry of human vision – involves “staggeringly complicated chemical processes” and must reset or it runs out of needed chemicals to function [74]         

2.    Cilium – requires multiple parts to function: microtubules, a motor, and linkers [75]             

3.    The blood coagulation cascade – is biochemically extremely complicated from start to end (irreducibly complex)[76]         

4.    The immune system – “antibody-diversity system” requirements and need for “minimum function” (irreducibly complex) [77]

5.    Vesicular transport – irreducibly complex means of selectively transporting specific molecules between enclosed cell membrane compartments [78]

6.    Male and female sex organs – “Anything less than a complete functional system would result in a sterile animal, dooming that species to extinction.” [79]

7.   Bird wing bone struts – increase strength for hollow bones but must have been there from the beginning and not added incrementally[80]

8.    Woodpecker – many unique features for a bird: 4 toes instead of 3, extra tough tail feathers, barbs at end of tongue to stab bugs, glue to stick bugs to tongue, solvent to loosen bug from tongue, etc. [81]

9.    Woodpecker – incredible shock absorbing capability (design) – [82]

10. European green woodpecker – route of extra-long tongue over top of brain[83]

11. Australian incubator bird – male instinctively builds and maintains nest on ground to keep eggs within a narrow range of temperature or eggs will not hatch [84][85]

12. Eggshell – with air running short in the shell’s air sac, chicks lie on their backs and instinctively scrape away the inside of the shell with their claws exposing wider portions of the eggshell’s cone-like pores to allow more air to enter the shell. [86]

13. Beaver – nose and ear flaps and fur lined flap in the back of their throat for swimming under water, etc.[87]

14. Duck-billed platypus – has eye and nose flaps to swim underwater that prevent them from seeing or smelling underwater but can locate shrimp by reading the electrical current between a muscle and nerve in their tail [88]

15. Zipper black and yellow garden spider – has 7 types of web fiber formulated for different uses [89]

16. Gecko lizard (certain varieties) – have suction cups on minute hairs on feet that allow them to walk on vertical and ceiling surfaces [90]

17. Chuckwalla lizard – special nasal salt excreting glands[91][92]

18. Human eye – steady vision although eye is vibrating all the time [93]

19. Human ear – moves only about 1/100 width of a hydrogen molecule [94]

20. Dolphins – highly sophisticated sonar requires all parts from beginning (irreducibly complex) [95]

21. Humpback Whales – use air from blowhole to herd krill for eating (innate ability) [96][97]

22. Humpback Whales – an ocean mammal that could not have evolved from a land mammal by mutations plus males have advanced cooling system to keep sperm alive (irreducibly complex)[98]

23. Sperm Whales – dive at 550 feet per second [99]

24. Sea Turtles – instincts, migration, magnetic compass, imprinting coordinates of route, etc. [100]

25. Salmon – instincts, migration, compass, imprinting of smells, etc. [101]

26. Dragonfly – can fly forward and backward (design) [102[103]

27. Hippopotamus – glands excrete oil to keep skin moist when out of water, can sleep underwater, etc.[104]

28. Glowworm – produce 100 percent [c] efficient cold light [105][106]

29. Bears – female can nurse cubs for 5 to 7 months without drinking [107]

30. Elephant – uses blood circulating in ear flaps for cooling, head bone very porous for light weight, etc. [108][109]

31. Sparrow – can fly into trees and bushes and never hit the branches [110]

32. Lampsilis (mussel) – mimics small fish with its soft tissue and shoots eggs in fish mouth to grow on the fish gills [111]

33. Horse – has large heart and hooves function as auxiliary pumps [112][113]

34. Ostrich – unique features: only two toes per foot, most powerful immune system, etc. [114]

35. Cuttlefish – ability to change their color and texture in a split second, can morph in rock, kelp, etc. [115][116]

36. Octopus – can morph in rock and other things [117][118]

37. Squid – males use dual simultaneous signaling [119]

38. Emperor Penguin – incredibly involved propagation and survival in Antarctica at about 1000 below zero [120][121]

39. Melopina Bee – only insect that knows how to pollinate the Vanilla orchid so this orchid could not exist without it. [122]

40. Manatee – no intermediates from other types of animals, best immune system of all mammals, etc. [123][124]

41. Butterfly behavior - the larvae for each type of butterfly is engineered to eat only one type of leaf. How does the female know on which leaf type to lay her eggs? [125]

42. Hummingbird – requires a very high rate of metabolism to support activities during daytime but its metabolism slows down greatly during sleep, or it would starve to death at night. [126][127]

43. Dogs – smell skin cells as much as a year later, sense when a person is going to have a seizure, etc. [128]

44. Bee – navigation and eusociality [129]

45. Fish – always have been fish according to the fossil record [130]

46. Bats – sudden appearance in fossil record in form very much like today, and its sophisticated ecolocation apparatus including neural mechanisms and amazing anatomical structures show design [131]

 

Notes:

[a] The theory of irreducible complexity states that all parts of certain complex organs are needed from the beginning for these organs to function and therefore each part cannot be added incrementally. One evolutionary biologist proposed the following to circumvent this concept: “(1) the self-organizing nature of biochemical systems, (2) the built-in redundancy of complex organic structures (if one crucial step is absent, other processes can achieve the same result), and (3) the role of versatile exploratory processes that, in the course of their normal physiological functioning, can help give rise to useful new structures of the body." [132] It should be noted that there is no way to prove that any of these hypothetical means had anything to do with forming any organs in the past. Also, underlying each of these hypothetical solutions is what may best be described as intelligence.

[b] The protective membrane of a cell is itself quite complex and is made up of “different lipid chains combined with phosphate to form unique polar structures” and also contains a “wide variety of imbedded proteins and carbohydrate molecules for signaling and the import and export of a wide variety of compounds needed for cell function and metabolism.” [133]

[c] The second source says a glowworm’s lighting system is over 90 percent efficient.

 

PIctures:

 

(a) Public domain

(b) Public domain

(c) DickDaniels http://theworldbirds.org/ CC BY-SA 3.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0 via         Wikimedia Commons

(d) OddurBen, CC BY-SA 3.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0 via Wikimedia Commons

(e) Picture by author, used by permission from Santa Barbara Zoo

(f) gailhampshire from Cradley, Malvern, U.K, CC BY 2.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 via

Wikimedia Commons

(g) Jfdwolff GNU Free Documentation License, Free Software Foundation

(h) Dreamtimefree

______________________

 

[1] Coffin, H., Brown, R., and Gibson, R., Origin by Design, (Hagerstown, Maryland: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 2005), 266

[2] Thomas, B., 150 Years Later, Fossils Still Don't Help Darwin, ICR, internet, March 2, 2009

[3] Evolution’s Achilles’ Heels, DVD,  (Creation Ministries International, 2014)

[4] Darwin’s Dilemma, DVD, (Illustra Media, 2009)

[5] Evolution’s Achilles’ Heels

[6] Ibid.

[7] Morris III, H., Tomkins, J., et al., Creation Basics & Beyond, (Dallas, Texas: Institute of Creation Research, 2013), 192

[8] Protein, Wikipedia, internet, viewed January 28, 2022

[9] Meyer, S. C., Signature in the Cell, (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2009), 212

[10] Unlocking the Mystery of Life, DVD, (Illustra Media, 2002)

[11] Behe, M., Darwin’s Black Box (New York: The Free Press, 2003), 69-73

[12] Than, K, Why scientists dismiss 'intelligent design', Science News, January 25, 2022

[13] Evolution’s Achilles’ Heels, Creation Ministries International, DVD, 2014

[14] metamorphosis, DVD, (Illustra Media, 2011)

[15] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution III, DVD, (Reel Productions, LLC, 2004)

[16] God of Wonders, DVD, (Eternal Productions, 2010)

[17] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution II, DVD, (Reel Productions, LLC, 2000)

[18] Burgess, S., Hallmarks of Design, (Leominster, England: Day One Publications, 2004), 11-15

[19] Ibid., 38-39

[20] God of Wonders, DVD, (Eternal Productions, 2010)

[21] Figuring Out Feathers, The American Museum of Natural History, internet April 25, 2015

[22] Birds of the Sun, Illustra Media, The John 10:10 Project, internet viewed March 2, 2020

[23] Burgess, 42

[24] Cassel, E., Animal Algorithms, (Seattle, Washington: Discovery Institute Press, 2021), 36

[25] Birds of the Sun, Illustra Media, The John 10:10 Project, internet viewed March 2, 2020

[26] Cassel, 43-45

[27] Ibid., 48-49

[28] Ibid., 42-43

[29] Birds of the Sun

[30] Cassel, 42-43

[31] Viet, K, Giraffes: Towering Testimonies to God’s Design, Answers in Genesis, July 11, 2017

[32] Holmes, B., How giraffes deal with sky-high blood pressure, Knowable Magazine, August 4, 2021

[33] Pitman, D., Giraffes: Walking Tall … by Design, Creation 33(4):28–31, October 2011

[34] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution I

[35] Lawrence, E., Giraffes have high blood pressure. Why don’t they drop dead? Novartis, internet, November 4, 2015

[36] What We Can Learn from a Giraffe’s Neck, Pfizer, internet, viewed 2022

[37] Pitman

[38] Thomas, B., 150 Years Later, Fossils Still Don't Help Darwin, ICR, internet, March 2, 2009

[39] God of Wonders

[40] McIntosh, A.C., and Lawrence, J.,The extraordinary design of the bombardier beetle- A classic example of biometrics. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Creationism, Vol. 8, ed. Whitmore, J.H., (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Creation Science Fellowship, 2018), 268-276

[41] Armitage, M., and Mullisen, L., Preliminary Observations of the Pygidial Gland of the Bombardier Beetle, Brachinus sp., Journal of Creation 17, (1), April 2003, 95-102

[42] Eisner, T., Aneshansley, D.J., Spray aiming in the bombardier beetle: Photographic evidence, PNAS,

96 (17), August 17, 1999, 9705-9709

[43] McIntosh, A., The Amazing Bombardier Beetle, Creation 42(2):12–15, April 2020    

[44] Armitage

[45] McIntosh, A.C., and Lawrence, J.

[46] Eisner

[47] Armitage

[48] Ibid.

[49] Ibid.

[50] Ibid.

[51] Ibid.

[52] Ibid.

[53] McIntosh, A

[54] McIntosh, A.C., and Lawrence, J

[55] Ibid.

[56] Armitage

[57] McIntosh, A.

[58] Armitage

[59] Ibid.

[60] McIntosh, A.C., and Lawrence, J.

[61] McIntosh, A

[62] Ibid.

[63] Armitage

[64] McIntosh, A.C., and Lawrence, J.

[65] McIntosh, A.

[66] McIntosh, A.C., and Lawrence, J.

[67] Armitage

[68] Ibid.

[69] Eisner, T., Aneshansley

[70] Chandler, D, How some beetles produce a scalding defensive spray, MIT News Office, April 30, 2015      

[71] Bombardier beetle, CreationWiki, viewed February 4, 2022

[72] Ziv, S., How Praying Mantises Could Help Build Better Robots, Newsweek, March 5, 2015

[73] Piui,T., How the praying mantises make their amazing leaps, ZME Science, March 6, 2015

[74] Behe, M., Darwin’s Black Box (New York: The Free Press, 2003), 18-22

[75] Ibid., 62-65

[76] Ibid., 81-88, 97

[77] Ibid., 130

[78] Ibid., 115-116

[79] Bergman, J., Can evolution produce new organs and structures? Creation .com, TJ 19(2) 2005, 77-78

[80] Burgess, 40-41

[81] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution I

[82] Catchpoole, D., Wood head-banging wonder, Creation.com, also Creation 34(3):43, July 2012

[83] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution I

[84] Ibid.

[85] Viet, K, The Incubator Bird: Nest Engineers, Answers in Genesis, August 22, 2017

[86] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution I

[87] Ibid.

[88] Ibid.

[89] Ibid.

[90] Ibid.

[91] Ibid.

[92] The Lizard that Sneezes Salt, Creation Moments TV, You Tube, August 5, 2016

[93] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution I

[94] Ibid.

[95] living waters: Intelligent Design in the Oceans of the Earth, DVD, (Illustra Media, 2015)

[96] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution II, DVD, (Reel Productions, LLC, 2000)

[97] Sarfati, J., Flighty Flippers, Creation.com, Creation 27(2):56, March 2005

[98] living waters: Intelligent Design in the Oceans of the Earth

[99] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution II,)

[100]living waters: Intelligent Design in the Oceans of the Earth

[101] Ibid.

[102] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution II

[103] Catchpoole, D., Dragonfly design tips, (GMT+10) , October 20, 2009

[104] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution II

[105] Ibid.

[106] Bergman, 81

[107] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution II

[108] Ibid.

[109] Weston, P., Heard of elephants? Creation.com, also Creation 21(4):28–32, September 1999

[110] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution II

[111] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution III

[112] Ibid.

[113] Holt, R., What About Horse Toe Evolution? Creation .com, (GMT+10), July 25, 2008

[114] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution III

[115] Ibid.

[116] Lyons, E, Wonders of Creation: Cuttlefish, Apologetics Press, YouTube, produced by WVBS, viewed April 4, 2022

[117] God of Wonders

[118] Smith, C., Masters of Disguise, Answers in Genesis, September 7, 2020

[119] God of Wonders

[120] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution III

[121] Viet, K, Emperor Penguins: Equipped for Life at the “Bottom” of the World, Answers in Genesis, July 25, 2017

[122] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution III

[123] Ibid.

[124] Borville, O., Manatee Evolution or Creation? Creationist.com, August 18, 2019

[125] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution III

[126] Ibid.

[127] Gillis, S., The hummingbird: creation’s superhero, Creation.com, also Creation 39(1):34–37, January 2017

[128] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution III

[129] Cassel, 59-63, 93

[130]God of Wonders

[131] Sherman, F., Bat Echolocation Defies Evolutionary Explanations, Institute of Creation Research, January 31, 2022

[132]Glick, T., Intelligent design (ID), (Encyclopedia Britannica, January 20, 2014)

[133] Morris III

 

Clownfish
Amphiprion ocellaris
Juvenile Praying Mantis
Blood Coagulation Cascade (g)
Standing's Day Gecko
Plelsuma Standingi
Madagascar
 
Flight Feather
highly magnified 
A - Barbs and B -Barbules
A
B