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Biblical, Darwinist and Neo-Darwinist Views on Origins

First cause, original environment, time, direction, order of formation, cause and direction of change, origin of man, essence of man


Origin Facts Check

Atmosphere, Cambrian explosion, cell life, circumferential order, genetic code, fossil record, irreducible complexity, natural selection, pattern of diversity, Piltdown Man, prebiotic soup, proteins and probability, speculation (Charles Darwin)

Myths of Evolution

Amphibian evolving to reptile evolving to mammal, Archeopteryx, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, comparative biology, fact? finches, homology, human and chimp DNA, Neanderthals, Peppered moth, recapitulation, the horse series, extinctions, junk DNA, Lucy, Miller-Urey experiment, Panspermia, stratification and fossils, vestigial organs

Science and the Age of the Earth

Magnetic fields of Earth, Mars and Uranus, accelerated decay and long half-life radioisotopes, radiocarbon in the atmosphere, coal, and diamonds

Mutations, Creation, Evolution

Origins, mutation, the human genome, homologous recombination and variation, reproductive cells, harmful versus beneficial mutations, cancers, source of mutations, DNA repair, recessive genes, most mutations damage function, sickle-cell mutation, hemophilia, fruit flies, TRIM5-CypA protein, CCR5-delta32 mutation, lactase persistence, antibiotic resistance, light-colored and dark-colored Peppered moths, new genes? duplication of a single gene, duplication of a chromosome, substitutions, insertions and deletions, complexity of the human genome



1. The Animals
2. The Ark
     2.1 Specificiations

                 2.2 Additional Information

                 2.3 Buoyancy

                2.4 Dead Weight

                 2.5 Carrying Weight Capacity

                 2.6 Cargo Weight Capacity

                 2.7 Store's Weight

                2.8 Deck Space for Animals

                2.9 Deck Space per Animal

3. Conclusions 




Humans and Chimpanzees: 134 of the Differences

Brain, skull, face, nasal structure, ears, jaws and teeth, throat and vocal, hair, sweat glands, body strength and endurance, nuchal ligament, fat, shoulders, arms, hands and wrists, spine, heart, blood, rib cage, gut, pelvis, legs, feet, birth, genome


Mitochondrial Eve: Who, Where, and When?

Most recent common ancestor, biblical dispersion of population, mtDNA mutation rates, Out of Africa, consensus sequence for human mitochondrial DNA

Origin of Life

The Bible and miracles, materialistic science versus miracles, origin of life – a test of miracle (creation) versus materialistic hypothesis, abiogenesis (origin of life) and the first cell(s), deductive logic, hypothesis, predictions; Test 1 - biological proteins self-assembly? right ingredients, place and quantities, minimum number and average size of proteins required for life, useful amino acid residue sequences, chirality, peptide bonds, probability calculations; Test 2prebiotic soup and cell membrane; Test 3 – biological protein assembly process; Test 4 – DNA for proteins formed by chance? genetic code, useful amino acid residue sequences, chirality, bonding, probability calculations; Test 5 – intelligence, junk DNA? complex information system         


Evolution Falsified?

Falsifiability, species, circumvention, Cambrian explosion, cell membranes, DNA and RNA catch-22, protein improbability, flagellum, metamorphosis, Pacific golden plover, mammal knee joint, flight feathers, Artic terns, adult giraffes, clownfish, African bombardier beetles, juvenile wingless mantises, biochemistry of vision, cilium, the blood coagulation cascade, immune system, vesicular transport, male and female sex organs, bird wing struts, woodpeckers, Australian incubator birds, eggshell’s cone like pores, beaver nose and ear flaps, duck-billed platypus, zipper black and yellow garden spiders, gecko lizard suction cups, chuckwalla lizard salt, human eye, human ear, dolphin’s sonar, humpback whales, sperm whales, dragonflies, sea turtles, salmons, hippopotamuses, glowworms, bears, elephants, lampsilis, horses, ostriches, cuttlefishes, octopuses, squids, emperor penguins, melopina bees, manatees, butterfly behavior, hummingbirds, dog’s sense of smell, fish, bats


Flight Feathers

Fossil feather finds, scales and filaments, types of feathers, feathers are very complex structures, preening, feather replacement          


Bombardier Beetles' Defense: by Design or Chance

Explosive chemical spray, Stenaptinus insignis, hallmarks of design, sophisticated and specialized biological design, sensory, brain, nerves, dual tracts with identical parts, secretory lobes, collection tubes, main tube, reservoir, striated muscle, thin tube from reservoir, valve, lobes, combustion chamber, exhaust tube, exhaust valve, exhaust turret, deflector plates


Horse Evolution

Naturalism, gradual progression, series, similarity, natural selection, variability, vestigial, Anchippus, Anchitherium, Dinohipus, Equus, Hippidion, Hipparion, Hypohippus, Hyracotherium (Eohippus), Kalobatippus, Merychippus, Mesohippus, Miohippus, Nannippus, Neohipparion, Orohippus, Parahippus, Pliohippus, Protohippus, Protorohippus


How Mantises Defy Evolution

Flexible joint to rotate head 180 degrees, 3-D vision, programmed to calculate precise distance to prey, ear to detect ultrasound




Intelligent Design

What is intelligent design? what are the sources of opposition to ID? Is ID science? observation(s), hypothesis, experiment(s), conclusions          


Are Special Creation and/or Evolution Science?

           Definitions of science, exact science, deductive logic, inductive logic


The Cases for Evolution and Special Creation

Fossil record, transitional forms, missing links, chimp and human DNA, mathematical improbability, complexity, intelligence and information, mutations degrade




Carbon-14 Versus the Conventional Geologic Time Scale

Accelerator mass spectrometer, Bristlecone pine, coal, conventional geologic time scale, cross matching, dating method, dendrochronology, Genesis flood, Old Tjikko, Pando clone, young versus old Earth


The White Cliffs of Dover

Geological setting, purity of the chalk, conventional age estimate, rapid chalk accumulation supported, large animals found in various chalk formations, coccolithophore concentrations, Genesis flood


Polystate Tree Fossils

Geological strata, fossil trees and tree-like plants through multiple strata, global flood catastrophism versus long-age uniformitarianism, polystrates as evidence for catastrophism, uniformitarian statements


Joggins Fossil Cliffs

Geological setting, Joggins cliffs as viewed by a long-age uniformitarian geologist, evidence pointing to rapid crust formation at Joggins cliffs, were the plants at Joggins grown there? evidence against autochthonous growth of fossil plants, coal beds do not prove a long lapse of time


Dinosaur Extinction

Eleven evidences for when, accelerated radioactive decay, carbon-14 dating, coal and carbon-14, dating assumptions, detectable carbon-14, testing, ammonite shells, coal and wood, dinosaur bones, mosasaur bone, dinosaur, ichthyosaur, and mosasaur soft tissue, dinosaur DNA

Paluxy River Dinosaur Tracks Challenges ...

Carbon-14, dinosaur tracks, dinosaur bone testing, geologic time scale problems, Glen Rose formation





Fossil Plants

Sphenopteris, Neuropteris dussartii, Botrychites reheensis, Neuropteris, Pecopteris, Neuropteris? cedar leaf, Bothrodendron minutifolium, 4 unresearched plants, Blue Forest petrified wood, pinecone of Thouronien, Sigillaria bark, unresearched fossil flower, Pecopteris



           Different blossoms (42)


Leaves a Work of Art

            Different leaves (62)




Frogs & Toads

            California toad, tree frogs (4)? Reinvart's Gliding Frog





Physical characteristics, source, American crow, barn owl, black phoebe, Brewer’s blackbird, California quail, cormorant, Eurasian collared dove, great egret, green-backed goldfinches, heron, house finch, house sparrow, hummingbird, killdeer plover, mallard duck, mockingbird, mourning dove, Oregon towhee, red-shafted woodpecker, redwing blackbird, rock pigeon, sandpiper, snowy egret, Swainson hawk, turkey vulture, western bluebird, western grebe, western grasshopper sparrow, western robin, western scrub-jay, white-crowned sparrow



           Physical characteristics, skull, lower leg and foot bones, feathers    


W. Indian Manatee

Physical characteristics, picture, fossil teeth, flipper bone, inner ear bone, and atlas and axis vertebrae



           Fossil skeleton in matrix



Physical characteristics, platecarpus skeleton, artist’s depiction of clidastes, halisaurus partial jaw and teeth in matrix, mosasaur skull drawing, premaxilla with other fossils in matrix, globidens and other mosasaur teeth, Globidens alabamensis, tylosaurus carbonized scales, mosasaur paddle bone and tooth in matrix, Mosasaurus camperi, mosasaur paddle bones, Clidastes propython fossils, mosasaur vertebra fossils (3)


           Physical characteristics, range, fossil skeleton, vertebra, and tooth




Rodents and Moles

USA: Ground squirrel, flying squirrel, tree squirrel, field mouse, gopher, beaver skull, muskrat skull, guinea pig, rabbit, jack rabbit, mole





Physical characteristics, range, Leptauchenia, Merycoidodon, fossil skeleton, fossil skull, vertebra, leg bones, and teeth, artists’ depictions



Articulated skeleton, skull drawing, fossil teeth, thoracic vertebra, tarsals, carpals, metatarsal or metacarpal partial, and phalanges, artists’ depictions



Physical characteristics, range, Megacerops, Palaeosyops, Sphenocoelus, Manteoceras and Dolichorhinnus, fossil skeletons, vertebra, teeth, kneecap, and metatarsal, artists’ depictions


Wooly Rhinoceros

Physical characteristics, range, fossil upper skull, mandible, teeth, atlas vertebra, another cervical vertebra, thoracic vertebra, drawings of fore and hind foot bones, calcaneum, astragalus and metacarpal or metatarsal (2)




Sea Life

Cleaner shrimp, sea urchin test, seashells of turbo, green turbo, top, murex (3), cone, conch, unresearched (4), horse, cowrie (5), turritella (2), land (5), bonnet, spiny oyster, unresearched oyster, mussel, abalone (2), limpet (2), Atlantic turkey wings, clam (3), white arc clam, scallop, and flat, coral (4), Florida sand dollar, western sand dollar, sea star, sugar sea star, horseshoe crab, sand crab, Dungeness crab, walrus skin, clownfish, sea horse, barnacle pair, sea otters, chiton shell plate


Water Animal Fossils

Sea snails Ecphora gardnerae,and vasum sp., orthoceras, oyster pelecypod, trilobites flexicalymene, Peronopsis interstricta, Ogyginus corndensis, Elrathia kingi, otarion sp., Hollardrops merocrista, Eldredgeia venustus, and kainops, ammonites pavlovia, perisphinetes, and unreached, belemite, gastropod poleumita, brachiopods Gypidula galeata, Mucrospirite thedordensis, neospifer? pseudoatrypa sp., and unresearched (2), bivalve Anadara diluvia, fish Palaeospondylus gunni, gosiutichtys, Diplomystus dentatus, Jianghanichthys hubeiensis, knightia eocaena, and Lycopterq davidi, floating crinoid Saccocoma pectinata, shrimp carpopenaeus, jelly fish, conulariid, echinoid Rhyncholampas gouldi, crinoids baby phacelocrinus, Archimedes, and unidentified, cystoids glyptocystites





           Physical characteristics, range, fossil cervical vertebra and tooth



Physical characteristics, range, fossil vertebrae, tooth, partial jaw, phalanges, and claw, artist’s depiction



Physical characteristics, range, fossil teeth, claw, skull knobs, and phalanx, artist’s depiction



           Articulated skeleton, fossil vertebrae, tibia and fibula



Physical characteristics, range, skeleton, skull details, fossil premaxillary tooth, portion of mandible, and vertebra, Thescelosaurus neglectus skeleton



Physical characteristics, range, artists’ depictions, fossil teeth, skull partials including occipital process, rib, phalanx? caudal vertebra, vertebra process





Horned lizard, unidentified lizard, gopher snake, garter snake, flying dragon, broad-headed woodlizard, frilled lizard, giant girdled lizard, brown basilisk, common iguana




Fossil Vertebrae

Plesiosaurus, cave bear lumbar, large mammal thoracic, subhyracodon thoracic, sloth, mammal thoracic, edmontosaurus caudal


Atlas Vertebrae

Woolly mammoth, cetacean, odontocete, horse, bison (3), cow, white tail deer, unresearched, wild boar, coyote, otter, grey fox, bobcat, racoon marten, beaver, muskrat, gopher, flying squirrel


Axis Vertebrae

Deinonychus, horse, bison (2), unresearched, white tail deer, whale (2), racoon, flying squirrel


Bison Skeleton

Occidentalus bison skeleton drawing; vertebrae atlas, axis, other cervical (2), thoracic (2), lumbar; sacrum


Hawk Skeleton

            Swainson hawk: feathers and disarticulated skeleton


Horse Skeleton

Equus horse skeleton and profile drawing; mandible with teeth, vertebrae atlas, axis, other cervical, 1st thoracic; sacrum, calcaneum, astragalus, metatarsals (2), phalanges 1st, 2nd, and 3rd, hoof, metacarpals (2)


Racoon Skeleton

            Disarticulated skeleton, racoon


Skulls & Jaws

Beaver, bobcat, coyote, fox, Swainson hawk, mink, muskrat, otter, porcupine, racoon, badger, skunk, ostrich, kingfisher, platain squirrel shrew, pipistrelle bat


White Tailed Deer  

Buck, vertebrae: atlas, axis, 3rd, and another cervical, thoracic; sacra (2)




Elephant Teeth

Mammoth: USA (2), UK (2), N. Sea (1); mastodon: USA (2) plus (2) partials; UK: (2); gomphothere? Florida, USA (1); proboscidean Florida USA, (1) partial; African elephant (2); Asiatic elephant (1)


Fossil Teeth

Alligator, edmontosaurus, deer, mosasaur, desmostylus, cave bear, globbins, equus, dromaeosaur, hydracodon, hesperocyon, eumys, kogiopsis, otter, oreodont, spinosaur, pterosaur, triceratops, Poebrotherium wilsoni? bison, paloeolama? ischromys? tapir, palaeolagus, racoon


Mako Shark Teeth

            Complete jaws with teeth




Fresno Chaffee Zoo

Birds: grey crowned crane, American flamingo, egret, brown pelican, black-necked stilt, grey-necked rail, Andean condor (2), emu, ostrich, greater rhea, crested screamer, blue and yellow macaw, Inca tern, sulfur crested cockatoo, pied imperial pigeon, pink-backed pelican, roseate spoonbill, piusested jay? rhinoceros hornbill, rose-breasted cockatoo, sacred ibis, scarlet ibis, ringed teal, white-faced whistling duck, sun conure, sun bittern, green aracari, chicken; mammals: Malayan tiger, Asian elephant, African lion, addax, common eland, greater kudu (m and f), common wildebeest,  Speke’s gazelle, common warthog, Chacoan peccary, Malayan tapir, llamas (2), plains zebra, white rhino, red kangaroo, sloth bear, blue duikers, Sumatran orangutan, golden lion tamarin, California sea lion, otter, ring-tailed lemur, reticulated giraffe, goats (2), two-toed sloth, six-banded armadillos; reptiles: chuckwalla, Komodo dragon, unidentified lizards (5), Standing’s day gecko, prehensile-tailed skink, American alligator, radiated tortoise, spider tortoise, African spurred tortoises, Egyptian tortoise, unidentified tortoise, Gila monsters, common boa, emerald tree boa, Taylor’s cantil, unidentified snake


Santa Barbara Zoo

Birds: toco toucan, unidentified pelican, black necked swan, Inca tern, bald eagle, Andean condor, Chilean flamingo, blue and yellow macaws (2), Humboldt penguins (3), sulfur crested cockatoo, unidentified birds (2 visiting), California woodpecker (visiting); mammals: western lowland gorilla, golden lion tamarin, white-eared tilt monkey, Asian elephant, Masai giraffes (2), African lion, fennel fox, giant anteater, capybara, meerkats, sheep, goat, pig, domesticated rabbit; amphibians: unidentified frogs; reptiles: unidentified tortoise, American alligator  


Toledo Zoo

African elephant, Komodo dragon, amur tiger, ankole-watusi cattle, southern white rhinoceroses? unidentified large snake and unidentified bird




Burma Amber

Fossils of cockroach, beetles (8), flies (8), mayfly, cicadas (3), bugs (5), ants (2) wasps (3), termites (3), mantises (2), scorpion fly, Bristletail, Sisyridae, crickets (3), grasshoppers (2), stink bug, bark lice (2), thrips (2), unidentified 4 wing insects (6), larvae (3), spiders (3), pseudoscorpion, tick?, millipedes (2)


Fossil Insects

            USA, Dominican Republic, and China (13)


Ants & Termites

            Central California, USA: (9)


Aphids & Mealybugs

            Central California, USA: aphids (2), mealy bugs (2)


Bees & Wasps

            Central California, USA: bees (15), wasps (10)



Central California (37); Southeast Asia: stag, scarab m and f, jewel, violin, neicerumbyse, longhorned, red speckled jewel, ghost stag, brown rhinoceros, bamboo weevil, green scarab, Wallace’s longhorned


Butterflies & Moths

Central California butterflies: monarch, anise swallowtail, red admiral, common buckeye, gray hairstreak, west coast lady, western tiger swallowtail, painted lady, marine blue, eufala skipper, fiery skipper, unidentified skipper, orange sulfur (m), cabbage white, western pygmy blue; Southeast Asia butterflies: vagrant, great orange tip, common nawab, common albatross, common tiger, common Indian crow, blue emperor Ulysses, unidentified (2), common map, common birdwing, eastern striped albatross, common bluebottle, red spot, spot swordtail, tawny rajah; North American butterflies: great southern white, spice bush, Julia heliconian (2), common buckeye, atala, zebra heliconian, unidentified swallowtail, queen, pinevine swallowtail; Central California moths: white-lined sphinx (2), meal, Dargida procinctus, , black cutworm, Indian meal, unidentified (25) Worldwide moths: atlas, giant leopard (m), nudaurelia, hemileuca, salt marsh, luna, pink white lined sphinx, pink spotted sphinx, cecropia, unidentified (6); North America moth: cecropia


Centipedes and Millipedes

           Centipedes: Central California (2), Indonesia (1); millipede: Central California (1)



            Indonesia and Thailand (5)


Dragonflies & Damselflies

Dragonflies: Central California (8), Connecticut, USA (3), Indonesia (1); damselflies: Central California (5), Indonesia (1)


Earwigs & Silverfishes

            Central California: Earwigs (2), Silverfishes (20)



           Central California (61)


Grasshoppers & Crickets

Grasshoppers: Central California (12), Connecticut (3), Indonesia (5); katydids: Central California (4), Connecticut (2), Texas (1), Peru (1); crickets: Central California (7)



Central California: variegated leafhoppers, unidentified hopper, unidentified beach hopper, three-cornered alfalfa


Land Crustations

           Central California: pill bug, woodlouse  



           Indonesia (4)


Leaf Insects

            Java, Indonesia: leaf insects m and f; Central California: walking stick



Physical characteristics, jeweled flower m, f, and juvenile, leaf mimic, dead leaf m and f, giant Asian m and f, Asian jumping m an f, unresearched (6), Carolina, mantidfly not mantis


Misc. Insects

Central California: western leaf-footed bug, leafhopper assassin bug, green stinkbug, small milkweed bug, green lacewing, brown lacewing, beaded lacewing, antlions (2), unidentified cockroaches (3), German cockroach, caddisfly, peanut burrower bug, unidentified insects (14)



Chile, Indonesia, W. Africa: scorpions (4); Central California: wind scorpion; Thailand: whip scorpion



           Central California (27), Southeast Asia (5)



Central California: antlion, codling moth, moth or butterfly, ladybug (3); Indonesia: lampyridae





           Central California: slug, snail



            Central California: earthworm





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