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Revised 12/22/2014
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Dedicated to summarizing the facts regarding origins
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Evolution: Falsified?
 
     For an idea to be a valid scientific theory, it must have the capability of being proven false.  This concept is called falsifiability or refutability.  Charles Darwin in Chapter 9 of “The Origin of Species” proposed a test of his theory of evolution through natural selection when he stated:
 
                    “If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which
               could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight
               modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.”
 
     Some question the validity of this as a test as some very imaginative hypothetical means may be found to circumvent almost any example where "numerous, successive, slight modifications" could not have resulted in a particular organ.  An example of this is evolutionary biologists response to the concept of irreducible complexity that says that
all parts of certain complex organs are needed from the beginning for these organs to function and therefore each part cannot be added incrementally.   To this, evolutionary biologists proposed three  hypothetical solutions: "(1) the self-organizing nature of biochemical systems, (2) the built-in redundancy of complex organic structures (if one crucial step is absent, other processes can achieve the same result), and (3) the role of versatile exploratory processes that, in the course of their normal physiological functioning, can help give rise to useful new structures of the body."[1]   It should be noted that there is no way to prove that any of these hypothetical means had anything to do with forming any organs in the past.  Also, underlying each of these hypothetical solutions is what may best be described as intelligence. 
    
     The following is a list of some of the numerous examples brought forward refuting evolution in accordance with Darwin’s test:
 
           1. The biochemistry of vision [2]
           2. Cilium [3]                                  
           3. Bacterial flagellum [4]
           4. The blood coagulation cascade [5]
           5. Vesicular transport [6]                                     
           6. Metamorphosis of Butterflies [7]
           7. Bombardier Beetle [8]
           8. Giraffe [8]
           9. Woodpecker [8] 
         10. Incubator Bird [8]
         11. Chicken Egg [8] 
         12. Beaver [8] 
         13. Platypus [8]
         14. Spider [8] 
         15. Gecko [8]
         16. Chuckwalla Lizard [8]
         17. Human eye and ear construction [8]              
         18. Whales [9]                                                                                                   
         19. Pacific Golden Plover [9]
         20. Dragon Fly [9]
         21. Hippopotamus [9]
         22. Glowworm [9]
         23. Bears [9]
         24. Earthworm [9]
         25. Elephant [9]
         26. Sparrow [9]
         27. Lampsillis Mussel [10]
         28. Horse [10]
         29. Ostrich [10]
         30. Cuttlefish [10]
         31. Penguin [10]
         32. Milopina Bee [10]
         33. Manatee [10]
         34. Butterfly behavior [10]
         35. Hummingbird [10]
         36. Dogs [10] 
 
A brief review of three of the above examples is as follows:
 
     Some types of bacteria use flagellum to swim.  The flagellum is a biological machine like an outboard motor that propels the bacteria along.  It consists of a motor, a propeller, and a universal joint.  All three of these components are required to make this machine work and must be there from the beginning.  Numerous, successive, slight modifications as required by evolution will not work. The concept of non function of a machine or organ without all its parts is known as irreducible complexity. [4]
 
     The metamorphosis of butterflies is fascinating.  A butterfly starts as an egg then becomes a larva that spends much of its time eating and crawling to get more food.  Then it becomes a chrysalis and during this period is mostly dissolved and almost completely remade into a flying butterfly.  How could evolution that is a natural materialistic process without foresight accomplish this?[7]
 
     The Pacific Golden Plover birds that breed in Alaska migrate to the Hawaiian Islands. This migration involves 88 hours of nonstop flight navigating over water with no markers to follow arriving at the exact location year after year. Prior to this migration, the plovers must gain just the right amount of burnable weight. Evolution cannot explain how the plovers first started this migration as it could not have started in numerous successive slight increments, how they know how much to eat, nor can it explain how they navigate so precisely to the same location over such a large distance with no markers. [9]
 
     For further study, you are encouraged to review the references below.
 
______________________
[1] Glick, Thomas, Intelligent design (ID), (Encyclopedia Britannica, January 20, 2014), http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1081911/intelligent-design-ID
[2] Behe, Michael J., Darwin’s Black Box (New York: The Free Press, 2003), 18-22
[3] Ibid. 62-65
[4] Ibid. 69-73
[5] Ibid. 81-88, 97
[6] Ibid. 115-116
[7] metamorphosis, DVD, (Illustra Media, 2011),
www.illustraMedia.com
[8] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution I, DVD, (Reel Productions, LLC, 2000)
[9] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution II, DVD, (Reel Productions, LLC, 2000)
[10] Incredible Creatures that Defy Evolution III, DVD, (Reel Productions, LLC, 2004)
.