Earth as viewed by
Apollo 17 astronauts
How the earth came into being and when has been the subject of much speculation by those who do not accept the biblical six-day creation account. The reality is that this type of speculation cannot be proven with any certainty because it relates to an historical event that cannot be repeated.
Table 4 presents some of the current dating methods used by old earth age and young earth age (biblical six-day creation) advocates. The consequences of these views in who we are and how we live are profound and should not be taken lightly.
TABLE 4 – AGE OF THE EARTH (Part 1)
DECAY OF LONG HALF-LIFE RADIOISOTOPES
1. The age of the earth by long half-life radioisotope dating methods disagree with dozens of physical processes such as the current rates of disposition of various chemicals into the ocean, and of the wearing away of the continental crust.  
2. The whole rock ages by different radioisotope methods often vary greatly. 
3. Minerals known to be very recent in origin are often dated millions of years old by
radioisotope methods. 
a. The earth is extremely old based on the requirements of the general evolutionary hypothesis.
b. Rate of radioisotope decay is constant for billions of years. This assumption is logically impossible to prove because continuous decay measurements have not been taken from the earth’s beginning. It may be disproved by evidence to the contrary.
c. Amount of original daughter material present at mineral formation under certain conditions can be determined with some certainty.
d. Earth was formed at about the same time as meteorites and the age of meteorites must agree with “an unproved and unprovable idea about solar-system formation.” 
Accelerated isotope decay has occurred in the past based on the following RATE project results:
(a) Zircon crystals with an alleged 1.5 - billion year age based on radioisotope dating were recovered from Precambrian granitic rock in New Mexico.  Yet, tests indicate they contain hugh concentrations of helium from uranium decay that should have diffused thousands of years ago.    This provides strong evidence for one or more periods of accelerated nuclear decay in the past and a young age for the earth. 
(b) The abundance of fission tracks and radiohalos give evidence of accelerated decay because they should have been erased from the mineral due to heating by tectonic and volcanic activity if the earth was not young. 
a. The earth is young based on the Bible.
b. Isotopes matching daughter products may have been present at formation.
c. Accelerated radioisotope decay is thought to have occurred during creation and/or the flood. 
EARTH’S MAGNETIC FIELD
1. Earth’s magnetic field is generally thought by old universe age adherents “to be associated with electrical currents produced by the coupling of convective effects and the rotation in the spinning liquid metallic outer core of iron and nickel. This mechanism is termed the dynamo effect.”  
2. The Earth’s magnetic field dipole moment has decayed from 1835 to 2005. See item 3 under Creation below.
4. Earth magnetic field reversals have occurred in the past. 
5. A reversal “is but one detail of the magnetic field that is not well understood.” 
6. The dynamo hypothesis has no real predictive power. Examples:
a. Only planetary magnetic field generation theories that support the evolutionary hypothesis requiring the universe to be billions of years old are acceptable.
b. The Earth’s magnetic field is prevented from decaying by constantly being replenished by electrical currents created by convection in the outer core. 
g. Supercomputer models have or can prove the dynamo theory. 
Less than 10,000 Maximum?
1. Since the 1970’s, the hypothesis popular with young earth believers in the scientific community attributes the earth’s magnetic field to “freely decaying electric currents in the earth’s core.”  
2. The earth’s magnetic field is induced by electrical currents in the earth’s core.
3. The earth’s (dipole  ) magnetic field moment has been measured continually since 1835 and has decreased by 7% since then to 2005. This is equivalent to an approximate half-life of 1400 years. 
4. From 1970 to 2000, the net loss of all energy from all parts of the magnetic field (dipole and non dipole) “was 1.41 +or - 0.16%. At that rate, the field would lose half its energy every 1465 +or– 166 years.”
5. A half-life of 1400 years means that the field would be twice as strong 2800 years ago, four times 4200 years ago, and so on. At this rate, about 10000 years ago the heat generated would cause the planet earth to be disintegrated. The age of the earth is therefore thought to be limited to 10,000 years. 
6. Evidence of a rapid magnetic field reversal has been found in a thin lava flow in the Steens Mountain in Oregon, USA with 45 degrees change in less than 15 days. 
7. “The present magnetic field strengths of the Earth, Sun, Moon, and planets agree very well with the values produced by this theory and a 6000-year age for the solar system.”
8. Magnetic field predictions by this model for Mercury, Mars, Uranus and Neptune have been right on as verified by spacecraft. 
a. Only planetary magnetic field generation theories that support a young age for the universe are acceptable.
b. Earth’s magnetic field generation and decay follow the established laws of electronics.
c. The earth at creation about 6000 years ago had a large electrical current that immediately began to steadily decay.
e. Uses the uniformitarian assumption to calculate the half-life.
g. The earth was made from water. This view is not held by all creationists.
h. Factors important in calculating the magnetic fields of planets, the moon and sun are their mass, core radius, core electrical conductivity, approximate 6000-year age of the solar system, and whether they were originally formed from water.  
i. Radioactive decay has not been constant for billions of years.
 Not all assumptions have been listed.
 Lutgens, Frederick and Tarbuck, Edward,Essentials of Geology, 9th ed., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006, 4
 Scientific Creationism, Editor Henry Morris, Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 1985, 154
 in six days, Editor John Ashton, Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 2000, 236. Chapter by John Baumgardner
 Morris, John, The Young Earth, revised and expanded, Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 2009, 57 (from table),
 Swenson, Keith, Is the Lava Dome at Mount St. Helens Really a Million Years Old? http://www.creationism.org/articles/swenson1.htm
 Amelin, Yuri and Krot, Alexander (2007), Pb isotopic age of the allende chondrules. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 42: 1321-1335. doi:10.1111/j. 1945-5100.2007.tb00577x
 Morris, 60
 Ibid 59, 60
 RATE stands for “Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth,” an eight year project started in 1997. “The primary focus of this research effort was the radioactive methods for dating rocks that supposedly yield age estimates of millions and billions of years and thus provide support for the claimed multi-billion year age for the earth.” The research team was composed of seven scientists (meteorologist Larry Vardiman; physicists Eugene Chafin, Don DeYoung, and Russell Humphreys; geologists Steven Austin and Andrew Snelling; geophysicist John Baumgardiner; and biblical Hebrew scholar Steven Boyd) all with earned PhDs. Snelling, Andrew,Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth, Answers in Genesis, Oct. 31, 2007, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/aid/v2/n1/radioisotopes-earth
 Humphreys, D. Russell, Austin, Steven, etal. Helium Diffusion Rates Support Accelerated Nuclear Decay, Answers in Genesis, Feb. 2, 2011, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/aid/v6/n1/accelerated-nuclear-decay
 in six days, Baumgardner, 235
 DeYoung, Don, Thousands… Not Billions, Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 2005, 78
 Humphreys, D. Russell, Austin, Steven, etal.
 DeYoung, 106
 Humphreys, D. Russell, Austin, Steven, etal.
 The Earth’s Magnetic Field, Astronomy 161, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knotsville, Tennessee, http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/earth/magnetic.html
 One variation on the dynamo hypothesis proposes that the “solid core formation in Earth’s interior maintains the dynamo to this day by virtue of the related ‘stirring’ of the molten core around it.” Luhmann, J.G., and Russell, C.T.,Venus: Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere,Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences, Editors J. H. Shirley and R.W. Fainbridge, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1997, 905-907,
 Antonenko, Irene, New Insights into the Moon’s Mysterious Magnetic Field, Universe Today, Jan. 2012, http://www.universetoday.com/93118/new-insights-into-the-moons-mysterious-magnetic-field/
 Plate Tectonics on Mars? Editor Tony Phillips,
 Mars Global Surveyor Magnetic Field Experiment MAG/ER, http://mgs-mager.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.html
 Lutgens, 356
 The Earth’s Magnetic Field, Ibid.
 Humphreys, D. Russell, Beyond Neptune: Voyager II Supports Creation, Acts and Facts. 19 (5), http://www.icr.org/article/beyond-neptune-voyager-ii-supports-creation/
 Humphreys, D. Russell, Mercury’s crust is magnetized, Jul. 18, 2012,
 Earth’s Inconstant Magnetic Field, Editor Alex Pline,
http://science.nasa.gov./science-news/science-at-nasa/2003/29 dec_ magneticfield/
 Morris, J, 2010, Earth’s Magnetic Field. Acts &Facts. 39 (8):16, http://www.icr.org/article/earths-magnetic-field
 Roach, Ibid
 Antonenko (for moon)
 Plate Tectonics on Mars? (for Mars)
 Sarfati, Jonathan, The earth’s magnetic field: evidence that the earth is young, http://creation.com/the-earths-magnetic-field-evidene-that-the-earth-is-young
 Lutgens and Tarbuck, 356
 Roach, John, Earth’s Magnetic Field is Fading, National Geographic News, Sep.. 9, 2004, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/pf/58784286.html
 How Long Does It Take for Earth’s Magnetic Field to Reverse? ScienceDaily, Apr. 8, 2004, http://www. sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/04/040408085209.htm
 Earth’s Inconstant Magnetic Field
 Bettex, Morgan, Explained: Dynamo theory, MIT news, Mar. 25, 2010, http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2010/explained-dynamo-0325.html
 Grossman, Lisa, Earth’s Magnetic Field Is 3.5 Billion Years Old, Wired Science, Mar. 5, 2010, http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/03/earths-magnetic-field-is-35-billion-years-old/
 This hypothesis was original proposed by physicist Dr. Thomas G. Barnes.
 Snelling, Andrew, Fossil magnetism reveals rapid reversals of the earth’s magnetic field, http://creation.com/fossil-magnetism-reveals-rapid-reversals-pf-the-earths-magnetic-field
 Humphreys, D. Russell, The Earth’s Magnetic Field: Closing a Loophole in the Case for its Youth, Creation Matters, 7(2), March/April 2002. Added for clarity
 Morris, J, 2010
 Humphreys, D, 2002
 Morris, J, 2010.
 Humphreys, D. Russell, The Creation of Planetary Magnetic Fields, CRSQ Vol. 21, Num. 3, Dec. 1984, http://www.creationresearch.org/crsq/articles/21/21_3/21_3.html
 Humphreys, D, 2002
 Scientific Creationism, 158
 Bible, 2 Peter 3:5
 Humphreys (Table 2)
Image courtesy NASA
Johnson Space Center